Science is a new way to teach middle
school science. It is an award-winning,
standards-based program in which
newsworthy events establish the relevance
of science topics; authentic tasks create
the need-to-know more about those topics;
and lively interviews, photographs, Web
pages, and inquiry-based science
activities create a desire to know more
about those topics.
is an Event-Based Science module about the
dynamic forces that help to shape the
surface of the Earth. It uses the 1991
eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippine
Islands to establish the context for
exploring concepts related to volcanoes.
The task in Volcano! places
students in the roles of producers of a
television show about the risks to people
living at the foot of Mt. Rainier, in
Washington. Students will acquire then use
their knowledge of plate tectonics, lava
flows, debris flows, and the Ring of
Fire to assemble the seven segments
that make up the show.
To enhance students'
enjoyment of this EBS module, there is an
album of photographs for students to
were taken at Volcanoes National Park,
Hawaii, Hawaii by Event-Based Science
(Click on this
photograph to open the album.)
As with all Event-Based
Science modules, much of the information that
students need is provided in the pages of
Volcano!. However, more information is
needed. Information about current earthquakes and
volcanoes will add to the authenticity of your
study. Information about the area around Mt.
Rainier will add to the urgency of the task.
Below are some World-Wide Web
sites where information is available. Click on the
highlighted words and be linked with sites where
helpful information can be found.
Volcano!-related WEB Sites
(Links are checked monthly. They were working
on the date of the last update.)
Tracking a Volcano
Piton de la Fournaise volcano is located in the
Indian Ocean more than 1,000 km east of Madagascar (21.2°S,
55.7°E). Piton de la Fournaise typically erupts about once a
year. The 2002 eruption began on Saturday, January 5, at 11
p.m. local time and stopped at 7:10 p.m. local time on
Wednesday, January 16.
St. Helens, Before the Eruption
Photo Courtesy USGS
The Alaska Volcano Observatory
(AVO) is a joint program of the United States
Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute of the University of
Alaska Fairbanks, and the State of Alaska Division of Geological
and Geophysical Surveys.
Monitoring Volcanic Flow
Satellite images show the area around Mount St.
Helens, before and after its eruption of May 18,
Lahars Sweep Down the Muddy River, Mount St.
Within the first few minutes of the
18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, numerous lahars
were generated on the west, south, and east flanks of the
volcano. One lahar originating on the upper east side of
Mount St. Helens flowed 30 km down the Muddy River into a
large reservoir in less than 30 minutes. At the base of the
volcano, the Muddy River lahar flowed as an unchannelized
broad sheet as fast as 110 km/hour. As the lahar flowed down
the Muddy River valley, its velocity slowed to an estimated
10 to 20 km/hour and its depth varied from 2 to 9 m. The
photographs on this page show some of the effects of the
lahar as it traveled down the river
Update on Current Volcanoes
Information about recent volcanic eruptions
throughout the world. This site will help you with program
Predict an Eruption
your hand at predicting an eruption of Mount St. Helens using data
collected by scientists of the USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory.
This presentation uses data from several eruptive episodes of
Mount St. Helens in the 1980s to show the way in which a series of
eruptions were accurately predicted by USGS scientists as far as 3
weeks in advance.
Franklin's paper on the relationship between
volcanic eruptions and weather, was originally presented in
1784. This copy of Franklin's original paper has
been formatted to resemble the original.